Back to the Basics: Analyzer Response Time

Most analyzer specifications clearly indicate the time needed for the analyzer reading to reach 63% (or 90%) of a final reading, in response to a sudden increase in concentration. 

These times are based on the response of the analyzer alone, and do not take into account the following that may be present in the complete analyzer system as installed: 

Sample Transport Time:

  • sample tubing 
  • filtration

Alarm System: 

Back to the Basics: Response time - Sample Transport

The speed at which the sample is drawn from the process and reaches the detector is critical. 

It is known that in many cases the response time of the entire sensing system must be not more than a few seconds. The following add crucial seconds & should be avoided:

Back to the Basics:Continuous monitoring

Authorities require that an analyzer makes “continuous” measurements. 

Portable devices used for occasional checks are not recognized. Sequential sampling systems, which take samples from several locations in the dryer, and multiplex the sample stream to a single analyzer, are not recognized. 

A reasonable definition of a “continuous” analyzer is that it can detect a sudden increase in solvent concentration in time to make an effective alarm, at any time during the dryer’s operation.

Back to the Basics: Effects of Desensitizing Substances

The desensitizing effects of several substances common to industrial processes are well known. 

Back to the Basics: Effects of Condensation

As for the sampling system, the sensor, and all its components in contact with the sample, must be heated to prevent condensation. 

The analyzer must be heated to at least the highest flash point of all the solvents, with perhaps a 10°C margin, so that the solvent mixture produced in the heated process does not condense in the analyzer tubing and detector, causing a significant, possibly a complete, loss of reading. 

Back to the Basics: Use of references gases in calibration

The practical difficulty in accurately preparing and storing exact solvent concentrations often precludes their use. Multiple solvent mixtures are even more difficult to adequately control. 

Back to the Basics: Solvent Calibration

Unfortunately, the process of preparing accurate solvent mixtures for the precise calibration of the analyzer under the actual operating conditions is sufficiently difficult and unreliable in many cases, to generally prevent calibration with solvent mixtures. 

Back to the Basics: Adjustment of Calibration for Process Temperature

Testing by the authorities has shown that at elevated temperatures the Lower Flammable Limit decreases, that is, the mixture increases in flammability. 

This means that extra care is required in the calibration of analyzers used in heated industrial process above and beyond that typically performed for ambient temperature leak detectors. 

The calibration data obtained for a particular solvent should always include the temperature correction, or give some basis for making proper temperature correction.

 

Back to the Basics: Effects of Varying Rates of Evaporation on Calibration Accuracy

For multi-solvent, multi-zone drying processes, it is not always proper to assume uniform evaporation of solvents in each zone.

For an analyzer with wide variation in response factors to the solvents of interest, there could be a considerable error from the assumption that the solvent mixture is uniform in each zone of the dryer. Potentially, the relatively volatile solvents could exist in greater proportion in the first zone(s) of the dryer, and the less volatile solvents could exist in greater proportion in the later zone(s) of the dryer. 

Back to the Basics: Calibration Data

In verifying the analyzer's range of response to different solvents, it’s best to obtain calibration data based on the response to solvent concentrations expressed in terms of LFL. 

Do NOT use the following:

  1. Response factors based upon weight-percentages (such as milligram carbon per normal cubic meter), these may be deceptively close in response until they are translated into terms of %LFL
  2. Calibrations which are based upon calculations and have not been empirically tested and proven using actual solvent mixtures

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