Waste products are collected from various processes around the chemical facility and are sent to a flare stack for destruction. EPA code 60.18 states for optimum combustion efficiency of the stack the waste stream must run at a minimum heating value of between 300-450 BTU/ft3.
Continuous monitoring of the waste stream is necessary to:
For the past couple weeks we've discussed LFL monitoring in chemical processes, the WHY & the HOW. Now let's see WHAT some real life examples look like (hint…they all have a common theme, they NEED an analyzer that can handle the uniquely tough chemical environment!):
Chemical facilities use a variety of hazardous gases and solvents in their production processes. Danger is present when hazardous buildup of flammable vapors in the atmosphere gets rich enough to ignite or explode. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) establishes fire safety standards, including standards for safe operation of processes.
Many chemical processes involve coating a product with a flammable solvent or mixture of solvents and then heating them in a dryer, batch oven, reactor or other source. The solvents evaporate off in the heating process and are directed to an incinerator for destruction, leaving behind the finished product.
In addition to the solvents, the atmosphere may also contain moisture, halogenated hydrocarbons, silicones and other unknown substances.
Danger is present when hazardous buildup of flammable vapors in the atmosphere gets rich enough to ignite or explode.
Chemical facilities use a variety of hazardous gases and solvents in their production processes. Whenever these substances are transported, processed or stored, the potential risks are high for hazardous conditions. These substances must be continuously monitored to protect personnel and facilities from accidental releases or leakage.
Process tools are enclosed areas in which specific wafer processing functions occur. Any process tools handling flammable gases require a hazardous gas detection system to ensure safety and be in compliance to codes. The FM standard states that “ventilation shall be provided for all tools handling flammable and combustible liquids. Ventilation shall be provided to ensure the atmosphere does not exceed 25% of the LEL (LFL) in the event of the largest possible leak.”
The pulp mill environment is tough; its dirty, its humid, it poses safety risks to personnel, facility, & equipment. There are serious concerns about fire and explosions but also sample delivery and maintennce. You need a reliable monitoring system.
Most monitoring systems are only able to measure the percent of flammability of a specific gas or narrow family of gases. In pulping applications, however, it is necessary to measure the overall concentration of all flammable gases and vapors entering the incinerator.